Task 16, Fuel & Technology Alternatives for Buses

Fuel & Technology Alternatives for Buses

Ongoing Tasks

Operating Agent

Completed Tasks

Contact for further information

Dr. Nils-Olof Nylund
VTT Technical Research
Centre of Finland
P.O.Box 1000
FIN-02044 VTT, Finland

Tel: +358 20 722 5518
Mobile: +358 400 703 715
Fax: +358 20 722 7048


Programme of Work

Buses are the backbone of many public transport systems around the world. Technology and fuel options for buses are increasing. Solid data on the new technologies and fuel performance is needed. The objective of the project is to bring together the expertise of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) transport-related Implementing Agreements (IA) to produce information on the overall energy efficiency, emissions, and costs of various technology options for buses.

This Task runs as a joint IEA Task and includes participation to include the various areas of expertise from multiple Implementing Agreements:

  • Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF): alternative fuels in general and fuel end-use
  • Bioenergy (specifically Task 39): production of biofuels
  • Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV): hybrid and electric powertrains

More information on this Task can be found on the website for AMF.

Working Method

The project encompasses a combination of desk studies and actual measurements on new types of buses. The project is divided into WTT (well-to-tank) fuel pathway analysis and TTW (tank-to-well) vehicle performance. IA-HEV is investigating the following topics:

  • Market penetration of hybrid technology for buses in the timeframe 2010-2020
  • Technology preferences (parallel hybrid, series hybrid, other energy storage systems)
  • Development of unit cost
  • Outlook for trolley buses


The Task was active from 2009 through 2011.

Member Countries

Most members participated through additional Implementing Agreements:

  • AMF - Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Sweden, Thailand, United States
  • Bioenergy - European Commission, Germany, Finland
  • IA-HEV - Switzerland

Financing and Sponsorship

The financing model was a combination of task and cost sharing.

Benefits of Participation

Many governments are the purchasers of bus fleets for public transport systems. Improved bus-operating vehicle performance saves fuel and reduces polluting emissions resulting in better air quality. Through multi-country IA participation, members benefit from the sharing of resources and expert knowledge to make informed decisions on bus policy, fleet fuel options, and purchase decisions for public transport.