United States - On the Road and Deployments

By Country


On the road

Compared to its total inventory of nearly 250 million light vehicles, the U.S. has a relatively small, but growing, number of HEVs, which finally crossed the threshold of 2 million total U.S. sales early in 2011.

Numbers of new-technology EVs, HEVs, and the overall fleet in the U.S.

The annual sales figures for HEVs in 2011 remained below 300,000, coming to about 2.1% of the total light-duty vehicle sales in the U.S. and continuing a decline that began in 2008. It is not clear when the HEV percentage of light-duty vehicles (which rose rapidly in the past decade from nearly zero to about 3%) will regain its upward trend.

1Sales data are compiled from J.D. Power, EDTA, Hybrid Dashboard, and Green Car Congress since deliveries of the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf launched in late 2010. Does not include data on Tesla Roadsters sold beginning in 2008. 2HEV data obtained from the DOE website for alternative fuel data center (  based on cumulative sales.3Energy Information Administration (EIA) Transportation Data Book, Edition 30 (

 Clean Cities Deployments

Much of the public effort of deploying electric vehicles and their infrastructure will happen through the Clean Cities program managed by the DOE. Clean Cities is a voluntary, locally-based government/industry partnership established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992. The mission of Clean Cities is the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles by encouraging and supporting local and state government decisions to adopt practices that advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. EDVs are included among the EDV fuel technologies.

Preparing for widespread adoption of electric vehicles, cities and other local leaders are working to speed the process to install home-based electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and all-electric vehicles (EVs). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an online resource for DOE’s Clean Cities initiative. The newly compiled information is housed on Clean Cities’ Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC).

DOE is also working with local leaders to encourage PEV adoption and drive consumer demand. Through a new competitive program, seed funding will help communities across the country with regulatory streamlining, infrastructure investments, vehicle fleet conversions, deployment of PEV incentives, partnerships with major employers/retailers, and workforce training.