The transport sector, with 36 200 ktoe (kilotonnes of oil equivalent), represents around 40 % of the final energy consumption in Spain, ahead of the industrial and residential sector. This consumption is characterised by an almost exclusive dependence on petroleum products.

In turn, road transport accounts for 80 % of the total consumption in the transport sector which depends at 98 % on petroleum products. Therefore, road transport contributes very significantly to the high external energy dependence of Spain (close to 70 %), with the import of a large amount of petroleum products per year (approx. € 50 billion per year). This dependence directly affects the trade balance, as the negative energy balance reaches approximately € 40 billion, and causes the uncertainties associated with price fluctuations and the international political situation.

spainpolitcalA consecuence of this, is that the transport sector accounts for almost a quarter of the global emissions of greenhouse gases in Spain, appart from its pollutant emissions that have harmful effects on both health and the environment. Alternative energy vehicles and especially, electric vehicles, offer solutions to the necessary reduction in emissions of local pollutants helping local administrations in their actions to improve air quality. They can also contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the transport sector, a diffuse sector with a complex performance.

The Industrial activity in the automotive sector in Spain (vehicle manufacturers as well as equipment and components) represents over 250,000 direct jobs, to which must be added the activities of associated services such as dealers and workshops. Spain is the second largest carmaker in Europe, behind Germany, and the first commercial vehicle maker, occupying the eighth position worldwide.

The Promotion of electric vehicles may involve significant development of the Spanish industry, ensuring maintenance of the wealth generated by our automotive sector and affirming its future leadership in the world, including in this technology. At the end of 2016, 11 models of commercial vehicles and electric quadricycles were being manufactured in Spain. In addition, there are companies like Irizar, Merkum and Unvi that also manufacture models of buses and electric minibuses. Meanwhile, companies like Torrot, Scutum, Volta, Rieju, Bultaco, and GoingGreen manufacture electric motorcycles and scooters and also emerged new industrial players with specific solutions for infrastructure equipment.

Related to the production and consumption of electricity in Spain there is excess of electricity generation capacity, with a predicted coverage margin of over 10 % until 2020. Also, Spain has one of the highest rates of incorporation of electricity generation capacity from renewable sources in Europe. This means that electricity generation contributed to the 44 % reduction of CO2 emissions in the electricity sector between 2005 and 2015. Renewable energy provided 36.9 % of the mainland electricity production in 2015 and 42.8 % in 2014 (this decrease is due to the variability of hydro and wind production driven by meteorological variables). Despite this decline, it should be noted that wind played a leading role, representing 51.4 % of the mainland’s renewable production, making it the third technology in the energy-production structure, providing 19 % of the mainland total in 2015. In addition, new records were established for instant, hourly and daily mainland wind production in 2015.

A widespread use of electric vehicles would involve increased electricity consumption. This could make it possible to take advantage of the energy peaks that occur at night thanks to increased wind energy, which the system does not currently require. This would take the form of night-time recharging of electric vehicles, mainly in private garages.