Portugal - Policies and Legislation

By Country



The largest EV-related effort in Portugal, the MOBI.E electric mobility model was developed by INTELI, a Portuguese think tank, as a fully integrated and totally interoperable system of electric vehicle charging infrastructure, service providers, and intelligent electric grid management. The Portuguese Government and MOBI.E partners believe a global strategy and an electric mobility action plan are needed, and Portugal is poised to share its experiences. Transnational approaches for electric mobility should be designed with a special focus on the vehicle users that ensures full compatibility and interoperability.  

The MOBI.E smart integration between mobility and energy systems will result in using vehicles as a “decentralized mega-battery” that can store excess renewable energy for return to the grid during periods of high electricity demand and charge the vehicle batteries during periods of low demand when the electric grid is supplied by renewable energy. With a single card, a user may charge the battery of any electric vehicle at any charging point around the country with electricity supplied by any retailer.

A public network with national coverage (1,350 charging points in the 25 main cities and roads) is being implemented, thus allowing electric vehicle users the ability to travel throughout the country without range anxiety. The network will be complemented in a demand-driven approach by private operators, which will contribute to build a wider and more comprehensive network for streets, public car parks, shopping centers, service stations, hotels, airports and private garages.

The Portuguese electromobility value chain is detailed in the graphic on the left. The Electric Mobility Operators are represented by the list of sites where charging points are located (home, private locations, and public locations). The Electricity Retailers interact with the Operators through the Managing Authority, shown as SG MOBI.E.


An example of a transaction in the MOBI.E system:

  • The EV user pays a total fee to the Electricity Retailer for three parts: electricity, charging service, and MOBI.E central system costs.
  • The Electricity Retailers pay the Electric Mobility Operators for the use of the charging point. There is a ceiling currently set by Government legislation for the aximum charging service fee to be paid (€0.03 to €0.07 per kWh for normal charging; €0.20 per kWh for fast charging). Electricity is to be offered at a non-regulated market price.
  • All fees received by the managing authority for system access and usage (paid by the Electricity Retailers and Electric Mobility Operators) are regulated by the ERSE (the Energy Services Regulatory Authority).

Complementary Legislation and Incentives

Portugal's key policy initiative relating to electric vehicles is its support to implement a national mobility network based on the MOBI.E model. Under the coordination of the Office for Electric Mobility (GAMEP), established within the Portuguese Ministry of Economy with direct connection to the Prime Minister’s Office, a specific legislative package establishing a well-defined, yet flexible, framework for electric mobility was introduced in April 2010, based on MOBI.E. The legislation package is designed to ensure full integration and transparency resulting in low barriers to entry for business stakeholders with a clear picture of the return on investment to attract private investors. The legislative framework defines actors and roles, high-level specifications, and a comprehensive set of incentives for vehicle purchase and operation, circulation and parking, infrastructure installation, and the main structure for market regulation.   

In addition, several direct and indirect incentives for EVs have been enacted. According to the Portuguese electric mobility legislation, an electric vehicle is defined as any vehicle that can be plugged into the electric grid. However, all direct and indirect incentives as outlined below are solely restricted to fully electric vehicles (i.e., PHEVs are not included) in order  to coherently maximize the measures’ effectiveness and impact.

Incentives Targeting EVs, as of December 2011

  • Exemption of EVs from ISV (Vehicle Acquisition Tax) and IUC (Circulation Tax)
  • Consumer incentives for EV acquisition up to a maximum of €6,500 to apply to the first 5,000 electric vehicles sold until the end of 2012
  • Corporate tax deduction for fleets that include EVs
  • Mandatory installation of electric mobility charging infrastructure in the parking areas of new buildings, starting in 2010
  • Special EV access to priority lanes and exclusive circulation areas
  • Preferential parking areas for EVs in urban centers
  • Annual renewal of State and municipalities’ fleets with 20% EVs, from 2011 onwards
  • Financing of pilot network infrastructure