On the road
The total number of passenger cars in Denmark has passed 2.1 million and is slightly increasing, although EVs are a very small percentage of all vehicles. Demonstration projects with PHEVs and development of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies will be in focus in the coming years. The growth for EVs and PHEVs in Denmark is difficult to predict currently. The next few years will provide valuable information for electric vehicles markets and user acceptance.
The Danish EV promotion program
In February 2008, almost all political parties in the Danish Parliament entered into a new Climate and Energy Agreement. As part of this agreement, the parties agreed to allocate 30 million DKK (€4 million) to promote demonstration programs for battery EVs.
The purpose of the EV promotion program is to obtain data about users’ experiences with EVs. Monitoring experiences will help identify practical barriers for the deployment of EVs in Denmark. All knowledge gathered about technical, organizational, economic, and environmental factors associated with using, operating, and maintaining EVs will be made available to the public. Another purpose of the EV promotion program is to analyze the potential for EVs to store excess electricity production from wind turbines through intelligent recharging.
Organizations and enterprises with vehicle fleets can receive subsidies for the acquisition of EVs and charging facilities when they participate in the program. Public authorities, as well as public and private enterprises and institutions, may apply.
All subsidized EVs are equipped with the same type of measuring instrument. This makes it possible to monitor usage of EVs in use. Data are gathered about daily driving patterns, including number of trips, trip length, and the duration and time of day when the EV is charged. Users can also apply for additional subsidies if they participate in additional data-gathering activities on the use of their EVs. Finally, subsidies are also available for cross-sector projects, such as analysis of collected EV data and reports on communication of experiences.
The program is being administered by the Danish Energy Agency. In spring 2009 support was granted totaling DKK 10 million (€1.3 million) for 17 projects for 49 EVs, which included cars, vans, minibuses, and trucks. In early 2010, about DKK 7 million (€940,000) was allocated, resulting in grants for 45 additional cars. In February 2011, DKK 11 million (€1.5 million) was allocated. The remaining DKK 5 million (€670,000) is scheduled for allocation in the beginning of 2012.
Danish Transport Authority, Centre for Green Transport
In the December 2008 political agreement for “A green transport policy,” a total of DKK 284 million (€38 million) was allocated for initiatives to help reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector. In April 2009, the Danish Transport Authority established the Centre for Green Transport to create the framework for a Danish center in the field of sustainable transport and to manage these initiatives. The Centre collaborates with stakeholders in the private and the public sectors and conducts ongoing test and demonstration projects about energy-efficient transport solutions in order to create synergy between the specific initiatives and the most recent research and knowledge.
Projects conducted by the Centre include a transport certification program for municipalities and companies, an energy-efficient driving campaign, and energy labeling of light commercial vehicles. DDK 200 million (€28 million) has been allocated specifically for demonstration projects between 2010 and 2013 that promote environmentally aware and energy-efficient transport solutions, including test projects with alternative types of fuels, electric cars, electric buses, and electric trucks. The grants cover 20–30% of the projects’ total budget, and the projects will operate for 2 or 3 years. Demonstration projects include the following:
ChoosEV: 15 million DKK (€2 million) was granted for the ChoosEV project to field-test 300 mass-produced EVs.
Hybrid buses: 4.8 million DKK (€640,000) was granted to test 4 hybrid buses.
EV timeshare leasing: 1.7 million DKK (€230,000) was granted to gather experiences from leasing EVs on a timeshare basis.
The electric mobility operator ChoosEV was established in November 2009, with the two utilities Syd Energi and SEAS-NVE and the car rental company Sixt as owners. The purpose of ChoosEV is to lease and maintain EVs (including PHEVs) and to establish an infrastructure of charging facilities throughout the country.
During 2010, ChoosEV planned and initiated an EV test and demonstration program called TestEnElbil (Test an EV), which may be the largest such program in Europe. In cooperation with 30 local authorities, 300 EVs during a period of 2 years will be put at the disposal of 2,400 families for a period of 3 months each. During the project period user experiences and data based on a total mileage of about 6 million kilometers and about 300,000 battery charges will be collected for research and analysis. The project started in October 2010 and will run until 2013.